• Incident Response Plan – IRP


    An incident response plan (IRP) is your team’s playbook for how to respond to security incidents. It should be a living document that’s constantly updated and tested, and it should include both instructions on how to detect an incident, as well as what happens after one occurs.

    What is an Incident Response Plan (IRP)?

    An incident response plan (IRP) is a well-defined and reliable plan that helps to recover from an incident. It’s important to develop one before an incident occurs, as you might be in a panic and not make sound decisions if you don’t have a written plan.

    An IRP should be:

    • Written down – so it can be referred to later on when needed
    • Detailed – with specific steps on how to deal with different incidents/risks

    Incident Response Plan (IRP) Components

    • IRP Components
    • Applications and Utilities: If you don’t have one, or if it’s not up-to-date, then your organization is at risk.
    • Equipment: Your equipment can fail at any time. It is important to ensure that you are prepared for this eventuality by having a maintenance plan in place.
    • Contacts (people and agencies): This information is key to maintaining your IRP as it allows for fast communication during emergencies. It also lets others know what type of assistance you need from them during an incident response event — whether it’s technical support or legal advice for example.
    • Policies: Having the correct policies in place will ensure that everyone working within your organization knows what to do when an emergency occurs — from handling social media messages from customers through to reporting incidents internally within the company itself.”

    Incident Response Plan – Applications and Utilities

    • Applications and Utilities
    • Apt – used to install packages
    • Git – used to manage source code repositories
    • git config –global user.name “John Smith” git config –global user.email “jsmith@example.com”
    • Nano – text editor for configuration files

    Incident Response Plan – Equipment

    • Computer (desktop or laptop)
    • Printer
    • Phone (cellular and landline)

    Incident Response Plan – Contacts (people and agencies)

    The Incident Response Plan should include a list of contacts, both people and agencies, that can help with the incident. The contact list should be in a central place in the plan so it is easy to find when needed. It should include names, phone numbers, and email addresses as well as other contact details such as the name of company or department they work for.

    Incident Response Plan – Policies

    • The IRP should be reviewed regularly.
    • The IRP should be tested regularly.
    • The IRP should be updated regularly.
    • The IRP should be well documented.
    • The IRP should be well communicated to all stakeholders

    Incident Response Plan – Procedures

    Procedures should be well-defined and easy to follow. There is no need for ambiguity since the most important aspect of incident response is clarity.

    Procedures should also be easy to understand and implement. The less time it takes for someone to understand how a procedure works, the better; this will reduce the chances that they will forget something important or make mistakes during implementation.

    Any procedure that requires training should be documented in an easy-to-understand way so that trainees can quickly learn their new responsibilities and duties as part of incident response team members (including those who may end up conducting any training). Additionally, any changes made after first publication must also be published in such a way as not only makes them accessible to others but also preserves original context as much as possible without jeopardizing accuracy or completeness.”

    Implementation of IRP

    The implementation of your IRP is an ongoing process. You may need to review, revise, and update your plan at any point as necessary.

    Implementation of the IRP occurs when you put it into action, so this is an important part of the process. The purpose of implementing an IRP is to protect yourself and others from harm caused by a hazard or risk that was identified in your analysis; however, there will be times when it’s necessary to implement some aspects earlier than others due to immediate threats or vulnerabilities. For example, if your building has been evacuated due to a fire alarm going off after someone accidentally set off sprinklers in another part of the building with fireworks (one scenario could be), then evacuating would obviously be priority number one because lives are at stake—this would most likely happen before anything else in terms of implementing response procedures during this emergency situation!

    An incident response plan is a well-defined and reliable plan that helps to recover from an incident. It’s important to develop one before an incident occurs, as you might be in a panic and not make sound decisions.

    An incident response plan is a well-defined and reliable plan that helps to recover from an incident. It’s important to develop one before an incident occurs, as you might be in a panic and not make sound decisions.

    The first step of creating an IRP is determining which threats are most likely to affect your organization and how they can impact your business operations. Then, determine what type of response would be necessary if any of these threats were realized. For example, if ransomware infected your network, you’d need to restore access to the systems that were affected by the attack so that the business could continue operating normally. This would require having backups available so that data could be recovered quickly after being encrypted by ransomware (or whatever other threat affects your business).


    An incident response plan helps organizations to recover from security incidents. This guide will help you understand what an IRP is and how to develop your own. It also covers the various components of an IRP, such as procedures and contacts (people or agencies). You can use this guide if your organization already has an IRP or if it doesn’t have one yet but wants one soon.

  • Information Security Governance – Constraints


    There are many different security policy constraints to consider when defining and implementing information security policies. The most important ones are legal requirements and regulatory requirements, physical constraints, and organizational structure. In this article, we will summarize these constraints and discuss their impact on developing an effective information security governance framework.

    Legal and regulatory requirements are constraints that must be taken into account when defining information security policies.

    You must take into account legal requirements and regulatory requirements when defining information security policies.

    The Sarbanes-Oxley (SOX) Act of 2002 is a United States federal law that mandates certain practices in financial record keeping and reporting for corporations. The Act requires that, among other things, the corporation’s internal controls over financial reporting must be assessed by an independent public accounting firm. The law was passed in response to a series of major corporate and accounting scandals, such as Enron and WorldCom.

    Physical constraints represent the facilities where information systems are located, such as the power supply, physical security, connectivity, network features, etc.

    It is important to understand that these physical constraints can limit the effectiveness of information security policies. For example, if an organization decides to implement a policy that requires its employees to use encrypted communication channels for all sensitive data transmissions, but its offices are located in a country with strong regulations prohibiting encryption technology, then the organization will be limited in its ability to enforce this policy.

    Similarly, if an organization decides to store sensitive personal data on servers located in one location while maintaining their other servers and databases at another location without sufficient protection against unauthorized access from both locations (e.g., through firewalls), then this could result in increased exposure of sensitive personal data as well as weaken overall network security due to lack of proper segmentation between different segments (i.e., between enterprise systems and public networks).

    Other constraints may relate to company image, organizational structure, or costs in general.

    Other constraints may relate to company image, organizational structure, or costs in general.

    • Company image – Security programs and policies should be integrated into the overall corporate strategy and business plan. This means that information security must support the overall direction of the organization and its goals, including profitability, market share, reputation, etc.
    • Organizational structure – The governance structure for information security should reflect your organization’s management approach and processes. For example: is there one department responsible for this? Are there multiple departments working together? Are some areas more heavily regulated than others? Is there a compliance requirement related to data retention/destruction?

    The risk tolerance determines the company’s risk acceptance, which expresses the maximum level of risk the organization is willing to accept.

    Risk tolerance measures how much risk an organization is willing to accept. It’s a function of the company’s risk acceptance and can be determined by the board of directors or other governing bodies.

    There are many different security policy constraints to consider.

    There are many different security policy constraints to consider when developing an effective governance strategy. For example, legal and regulatory requirements often need to be considered when creating a security policy. Physical constraints may also apply, such as the physical location of your data or servers. Your company’s image is another consideration that needs to be taken into account when developing a security policy because having a bad reputation could lead customers and investors away from your company. Organizational structure can also play an important role in determining how you implement certain policies at your organization and what kind of support staff you have access to (e.g., IT or HR). Costs are another constraint because if it costs too much money, then there will be less room for mistakes during implementation, which would ultimately hurt overall efficiency while reducing employee morale due to limited resources available for training sessions, etcetera.”

    In addition to these types of constraints, some other factors that impact organizations include risk acceptance levels within leadership positions and management style preferences among key decision makers involved with making decisions related specifically towards information security governance outside of technical considerations alone.”


    In this article, we’ve covered the most important security policy constraints. As you can see, there are many factors to consider when creating an information security policy, which is why it’s so important for companies to have an experienced expert on board who understands all the different aspects.

  • Information Security Policy Framework


    The information security policies framework is an organization’s primary tool for managing its information security programs. Policies set out an organization’s requirements for protecting data and assets and regulating actions taken by employees and third parties. There are four types of documents that make up an information security program:


    Policies are statements of principles, and they’re intended to guide decision-making. Policies are high-level and broad in scope; they don’t provide specific details or implementation information. Policies are the foundation for all other documents in the framework, such as standards and guidelines.

    Some example policies your organization might have include security, privacy, and acceptable use.


    Standards are best practices that can be applied to an information security program. They are used to define how a business will implement and measure the effectiveness of its information security programs.

    Standards are important because they set expectations for what should occur within a company, which helps ensure that the proper steps have been taken to protect your business from threats such as malware, viruses, and hackers. If you aren’t using standards, you might not have enough safeguards to prevent these types of attacks from occurring or being successful if they do happen, so having benchmarks is key.

    The benefits of using standards include consistency across departments (e.g., compliance); accountability (i.e., who did what); transparency into what is happening within each department; easier communication between various stakeholders like IT staff members vs. non-technical folks who need access; cost savings due to reduced risk exposure; opportunity cost savings due to fewer incidents requiring remediation which means less time spent on incident management activities instead focusing more effort back onto developing new products/services instead, etc.


    Detailed, step-by-step processes and organization must follow in specific circumstances, and the processes must be documented. In the event of an emergency, staff members can quickly reference these procedures to determine what needs to happen next.

    The procedures should be clearly outlined and easy to understand. They must also be written in plain language, not full of industry jargon and complicated terminology that only a select few can comprehend.


    • Guidelines are a set of recommended practices for security practice.
    • Guidelines are not mandatory, but they provide recommendations for good security practices.
    • The guidelines in this section can be used in conjunction with policies, standards, or procedures to guide your organization’s efforts at information security management.

    This framework will help you understand the various kinds of documents that make up an information security program.

    This framework will help you understand the various kinds of documents that make up an information security program. These documents are known as the Information Security Policy Framework, and they include the following:

    • Policies – High-level statements describing the overall direction of your information security program
    • Standards – Detailed statements that provide guidance on specific aspects of your program’s operation (e.g., which operating systems to use)
    • Procedures – Specific instructions for performing tasks associated with managing information assets (e.g., how to access a file server)
    • Guidelines – Recommendations for handling situations not covered by existing policies or standards


    I hope this framework has helped you understand the different kinds of documents that make up an information security program.

  • Information Security Policy


    This is a detailed information security policy for your organization.


    The goal of this policy is to protect the organization’s information assets by establishing a framework for protecting information, including physical and logical controls.

    This policy will help you:

    • Distinguish between personal and corporate information and how it is used.
    • Understand what types of rules in your workplace apply to information privacy.
    • Establish guidelines for employees on using company equipment and software resources when accessing personal content on company devices (e.g., laptops).


    The scope of this policy is to ensure the protection of information and information systems. The policy applies to all employees, contractors/vendors, and third parties (such as vendors) who provide services to the company or access its information or networks.

    Roles and Responsibilities

    The following roles and responsibilities are necessary for the implementation of this policy:

    • Information Security Officer – Responsible for ensuring that all security requirements are met, including those outlined in this policy.
    • Data Owner/Data Steward(s) – Responsible for ensuring that data is managed and protected according to the organization’s policies.
    • Developers – Responsible for creating software applications designed to protect data from unauthorized access or use and any other security controls implemented within an application (e.g., encryption).
    • System Administrators – Responsible for configuring systems, networks, and servers so that they comply with organizational policies and standards; monitoring system logs; performing routine maintenance on hardware components; etc. This includes implementing all required security controls within their respective environments (such as anti-virus software scanning files downloaded from external sites).

    Key Terms

    You must be familiar with the following key terms:

    • Information security policy: A written statement of an organization’s plans to protect information from unauthorized access, use, modification, destruction, or disclosure. It should also include procedures for handling security incidents and a commitment to comply with applicable laws and regulations.
    • Information security management: The process of protecting an organization’s assets from loss caused by unauthorized access or use through developing and maintaining policies, plans, and procedures that are consistent with its risk management strategy. This includes developing administrative safeguards (e.g., physical security controls), implementing technical safeguards (e.g., firewalls), training employees to follow established policies/procedures, and overseeing third-party service providers who may have access to your network or data center facilities.
    • Information security officer (ISO): A person within an organization responsible for implementing information security programs based on organizational needs – rather than having one individual responsible for all aspects of this program across all departments in their company such as ISSOs do not typically exist today because it does not scale well enough to meet business needs unless there is only one department within each company that deals directly with customers’ data.”

    Communication and Monitoring

    Communication and monitoring are two vital components of your information security policy. Communication is crucial because it helps inform employees of their responsibilities, while monitoring enables you to ensure they follow the rules.

    The first step in communicating your information security policy should be distributing a document that outlines who should read it and how often they need to review it. It’s also important to let employees know who will be enforcing compliance with your policies, so they can contact them directly if there is confusion about any aspect of the document or its implementation.

    Monitoring compliance with an information security policy is essential for maintaining data privacy and security within your organization since this allows you to identify weaknesses in internal processes before any serious problems occur. There are many different ways that you can monitor compliance with an information security policy; one simple method involves creating reports based on log data from network firewalls or intrusion detection systems (IDSs).

    This is a detailed information security policy for your organization.

    Information security policies are an excellent way to ensure that your organization’s data is protected against threats. They can help you avoid a data breach, a common problem for many businesses and organizations.


    I hope this information has been helpful to you. I am always available for questions and comments, so feel free to reach out!

  • Corporate Governance


    Corporate governance is the system of organizational structures, processes, and relations by which corporations are directed and controlled. Corporate governance includes mechanisms for accountability and tools for ensuring that those who are supposed to be accountable are acting in the corporation’s best interests.

    Strategic direction

    A company’s strategic direction is the overall direction it takes to achieve its mission and vision. The board of directors sets the strategic direction, which can also be defined as the company’s mission, vision, and values.

    The board determines what business the organization will operate in, how it will compete in those markets, and what kind of products or services they provide. The board uses this information to guide the organization’s actions.

    Develop a plan

    The first step in developing a corporate governance plan is to create a strategic plan. A strategic plan is the most important document in the company; it outlines the direction of your business and defines how it will grow and develop over time.

    The next step is to draft a mission statement explaining what your company does, why it exists, and who its customers are. After that comes the vision statement: this is an aspirational expression of what you want your business to become in five years or more. You can also use this as an opportunity to set out any specific growth or expansion goals during that period (e.g., doubling sales).

    Implement strategy

    A strategic plan is a document that describes the organization’s objectives, goals, and activities. It provides direction for organizations to achieve their long-term goals.

    Strategic planning involves:

    • An assessment of the current situation
    • Development of strategies for improvement
    • The formulation of plans for implementing those strategies

    Execute the strategic plan

    The Board of Directors and senior management should ensure that the company’s strategic plan is implemented. The execution of a strategic plan should be a continuous process, and changes in the environment should be considered when developing new strategies or reviewing existing ones.

    Common corporate governance model

    The most common corporate governance models are:

    • Shareholder model. The board of directors is elected by shareholders and represents the interests of shareholders only.
    • Managerial model. The board of directors is composed entirely of managers acting in the interests of all stakeholders, including shareholders, employees, and customers.
    • Board of trustees model. The board consists of three different types: individuals who represent the interests of a given stakeholder group (such as employees), individuals who represent the interests of more than one stakeholder group (such as an employee-employer representative), and independent directors who do not have ties to any stakeholder groups but rather serve on their initiative as overseers for all stakeholders’ concerns.
    • Board of governors model (also known as a “tripartite” or “triangular” corporation). This type combines elements from both previous models, with two classes representing specific stakeholder groups (shareholders and employees) and independent directors working in their best interests.


    A company’s relationship with its shareholders is an important factor in its success. Shareholders are the owners of the company and may be individuals or investment institutions. They invest in a business by buying shares, which give them legal title to part of that business’s assets and earnings.

    The board of directors is elected by shareholders, who then exercise control over corporate policies by voting on management issues at annual and other meetings (also known as shareholder meetings).

    Board of directors

    The board of directors is made up of those appointed by the shareholders, who usually have a fiduciary duty to act in the best interest of the company and its investors. The board sets strategic direction, approves major investments, oversees executive compensation, and appoints a CEO. A strong board will ensure that management stays focused on delivering value for shareholders.

    The ideal candidate for boards should be an independent director with experience in finance, accounting, or auditing; investing or private equity; law; governance; risk management; operations management; technology management; or other relevant fields. In addition to financial expertise, diversity (gender balance) is also increasingly important.

    Chief executive officer

    The chief executive officer (CEO) is the highest-level executive in a company. The CEO is responsible for implementing the strategic plan and ensuring it is adhered to. In addition, the CEO is responsible for the business’s day-to-day operations, including human resources management and compliance with laws and regulations. Finally, CEOs are charged with monitoring performance in line with their own goals as well as those set by their boards of directors or shareholders; if there are any problems or issues with meeting these targets—such as low productivity rates or high employee turnover rate—it’s up to them to address them immediately so that they can be rectified before they become larger issues down the road.

    Management team

    The management team is a group of individuals responsible for the day-to-day operations of the organization, as well as its strategic direction. It is also responsible for implementing and executing the strategic plan.

    The management team typically consists of a CEO, CFO, COO, Directors/VPs, and other senior leaders within the company.

    Function of the organization

    The formal definition of a corporation is an organization that is created by the laws of its state and operated to provide a return on investment to its shareholders. That’s a great start, but it doesn’t tell us what makes up the structure of this type of organization.

    A corporation is not just an office building with people inside doing work. Instead, it’s more like an airplane: it has wings (the strategy), engines (the resources), and controls (the processes). The goal is for all three pieces—strategy, resources, and processes—to work together seamlessly so that you get from point A to point B without crashing or running out of fuel along the way!

    Delegate authority, responsibility and accountability for policy implementation.

    Delegating authority and responsibility is a key element of sound governance. A strong board will delegate authority to the right people within the organization, establish clear lines of communication, manage expectations, and set goals and objectives. The board should ensure that those responsible for policy implementation have the necessary resources to achieve these goals.

    Corporate governance is an important part of any business.

    Corporate governance is the process by which an organization is directed and controlled. Corporate governance encompasses the conduct of business and relationships with stakeholders. It is concerned with the following:

    • The board of directors
    • Corporate culture
    • CEO compensation


    Corporate governance is an important part of any business. It allows companies to maintain financial stability, increase shareholder value, and ensure that employees are treated fairly.

  • PCI DSS 4.0 compliance required by March 2025


    The Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS) 4.0 has been released, but many organizations are still trying to figure out what it means for them. The PCI 4.0 changes have implications for merchants, service providers, their customers, and other parties that process payment card transactions. Organizations should start preparing to comply with this new standard by March 2025 or sooner.


    PCI DSS 4.0 compliance is a big deal. It’s not just another new version of the standard to learn but an update that presents you with new challenges and requirements that must be satisfied if your organization wants to keep its cards in customers’ wallets and still be able to take payments online.

    What does PCI DSS 4.0 mean for your organization?

    In short, it means more than ever before that you need a comprehensive understanding of what PCI DSS is, how it works and why it exists—and then put those concepts into practice by developing or improving your own processes for handling payment card data, so they’re compliant with the latest standards.

    PCI DSS 4.0 changes and implications

    • PCI DSS 4.0 is a major change from the previous version of the standard, 3.2.1, released in 2018.
    • You can expect to see these changes reflected in a contract you sign with your credit card processor or other service providers that handle cardholder data by March 2025. This means that even if you’re not currently processing payments through one of these service providers, you should familiarize yourself now with what’s going on so that when it does become necessary for you to do so later down the road—and it will—you have time to prepare your organization for compliance with PCI 4 requirements before they become mandatory contracts.

    What should your organization do to prepare for PCI 4.0 compliance

    To get the most out of your investment in PCI DSS 4.0 compliance, it’s important to take a few steps.

    • Get a clear understanding of PCI 4.0

    To prepare for PCI 4.0 compliance, you need to understand the details and requirements of the new standard. Look at what your organization needs to do differently within the scope of each requirement and consider how this will affect your security program as a whole. You’ll also want to look at how these changes will impact other parts of your business—particularly those related but outside the scope of payment card security (e.g., directory services).

    • Identify your risk profile

    Understanding where you stand in terms of risk concerning meeting each requirement will help you prioritize where resources should be allocated for your organization’s efforts toward PCI 4.0 compliance efforts not only meet but exceed expectations from regulators or third-party assessors such as Qualys Secure Cloud Platform (SCAP).

    The Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS) 4.0 has been released; it’s a good idea to start preparing for it now if you still need to. The new standard will impact your organization, regardless of whether you must comply with it.

    PCI DSS 4.0 compliance requirements will be enforced starting March 2025, but it’s best to prepare for the transition now. The new standard is a contractual requirement for all organizations that store, process, or transmit cardholder data and will impact your organization regardless of whether you are required to comply with it or not.

    There are several key changes in PCI DSS 4.0:

    • It requires additional data protection controls around networking and remote access
    • It introduces a new methodology called Threat Modeling Prevention (TMP)
    • It focuses on preventing cyberattacks by identifying the most critical areas of the business (such as payment processing) and applying security controls at each step along this path


    We hope this blog post has helped you understand the implications of PCI 4.0 and the changes it brings to your organization. While compliance is not mandatory until March 2025, it’s a good idea to start preparing now if you haven’t already done so.

  • GRC Leadership

  • Business Recovery Processes


    Business recovery is the process of bringing your business back online in the aftermath of a disaster. Disaster recovery can happen quickly, but it usually takes longer than expected. It’s important to have a plan in place to recover from any disruption so that you can continue operating with minimum disruption and maximum efficiency. We’ll walk through a typical business recovery process and outline what needs to be done at each step along the way:

    Conducting a risk assessment

    Conducting a risk assessment is the most important step in the process of identifying threats to your business and developing an effective recovery plan. The key to conducting an effective risk assessment is to identify all of the threats, risks, vulnerabilities, and controls that affect the operations of your business.

    Once you have identified these factors, it is not enough to list them – you must also determine what impact each factor could have on your organization if a disaster strikes. For example:

    • If a tornado damaged our facility, we would be unable to continue operations because we do not have another site where we can operate until repairs are made (impact).
    • If our building is destroyed by fire, we need to find another location that meets our needs while we repair or replace our damaged facility (impact).

    Conducting a business impact analysis

    • Identify the business processes that are impacted by a disaster.
    • Identify the criticality of each process.
    • Identify the dependencies between processes. The dependencies can be direct or indirect, such as one process depending on another process for its data or resources or an upstream process is dependent on a downstream process for what it produces. For example, Sales depends on Marketing to produce content; Marketing depends on Finance for budgeting information.
    • Identify recovery time objectives (RTOs) and recovery point objectives (RPOS). An RTO defines the maximum amount of time allowed before a business operation is restored after failure occurs; it usually refers to how long it takes for production systems to recover from an outage (e.g., how long does it take for your website to be up again if your server goes down). An RPOS defines when data must be recovered in order to resume business operations at pre-failure levels; this could apply both within internal systems (e.g., if you lose some sales data but still have some history available so you can get back “to normal”) and with external systems (e.g., if you need access through credit card processors in order not to lose revenue while they recover their own systems).

    Defining a business recovery response and recovery strategy

    When an organization experiences a disruption, it is important to identify the critical business processes and resources that are impacted. The next step is to define recovery time objectives (RTO) and recovery point objectives (RPO). The RTO defines how quickly an organization can resume normal operations after a disruption. At the same time, the RPO sets out how much data loss or degradation can be tolerated during a recovery. These two metrics are critical for determining how much effort should be placed on business continuity planning (BCP) activity.

    Once you have defined your RTOs and RPOs, you will need to identify which resources should be used when recovering from a disruption—this includes people with technical skills as well as physical facilities such as backup generators or mobile cell towers. Once these key areas have been identified, you can move on to identifying a strategic BCP strategy for your organization by looking at what works best in terms of resilience against different types of disruptions, such as natural disasters versus malicious cyberattacks.

    Documenting business recovery response and recovery plans

    Documentation should be in a format that the business and its employees can easily understand. This documentation should include the following:

    • A list of all infrastructure affected by the disaster, including equipment, facilities, and systems.
    • Timelines for when each stage of restoration will occur (i.e., restoring power at specific times).
    • Names and contact information for key personnel responsible for coordinating and carrying out business recovery response activities, as well as names of support staff or contractors involved in critical tasks such as power restoration or cleaning/debris removal efforts.

    Training covers business recovery response and recovery procedures

    Training covers business recovery response and recovery procedures.

    • Train all employees on the importance of responding quickly to a disaster situation and what they should do if one occurs. Include all vendors and suppliers in training, as well.
    • Ensure your training is ongoing, not just at the initial start-up time. Review responses periodically to ensure they remain current or up-to-date with any changes that may have occurred in your business environment since you first put them into place.
    • Train employees to use their judgment when responding to a scenario; don’t expect everyone to follow the same steps exactly as written out in a procedure manual!

    Updating business recovery response and recovery plans

    • Update business recovery response and recovery plans:
    • Review and update the plan to ensure it is current.
    • Refresh the plan to ensure it is still relevant.
    • Review the plan to ensure it is still accurate and relevant.

    Auditing business recovery response and recovery plans

    In an audit, you review your business recovery plan to ensure it is implemented as intended. You should also check that your plan’s components align with industry best practices and applicable laws. If they’re not, you may need to change them or update your plan accordingly.

    For example, you may want to do an audit if:

    • You have recently made significant changes to your business model or operations (e.g., launching a new product line).
    • There has been a change in leadership or other key staffing changes at the management level within your organization that could impact how well employees follow through on their responsibilities during a disaster situation (e.g., hiring an executive who doesn’t attend meetings).

    A plan for recovering from a disaster is essential for businesses to continue operating.

    Business recovery is part of business continuity. It’s about getting your business back up and running quickly after a disaster, but it’s not just about resuming operations. A business recovery plan is essential for businesses to continue operating.

    Businesses that have invested in recovering from disasters will likely be able to recover more quickly than those that haven’t prepared for the worst-case scenario. A well-executed business recovery process can help you recover faster, even if it is less expensive than expected or ends up with no losses at all!


    Businesses need to be prepared for disasters. You can’t predict when a disaster will occur, but if you have a plan in place, it will help ensure that your business keeps running smoothly and recovers quickly after one has happened. If you don’t have one already, start working on it today!

  • Evaluation of Risk – Transfer Risk


    Risk transfer is the process by which a company moves its financial responsibility to another party. The transferring entity and receiving party must enter into a contract specifying the transfer terms, including what risks will be transferred, how much they will cost, and what types of incidents will trigger coverage. Risk-transfer contracts are often called “loss-of-premium policies” or “buy/sell agreements.”

    Transfer risk is defined as the risk of the potential financial impact and the legal responsibility of an incident or an encounter.

    Transfer risks can be categorized into two types:

    • Direct transfer – when one party transfers its liability, or part of its liability, to another party.
    • Indirect transfer – When one party transfers its liability to another party who would pass on that obligation back onto the original owner/policyholder (as if they never transferred it).

    An organization transfers its risk by outsourcing to a third party or purchasing insurance from another organization.

    There are two ways an organization transfers its risk: outsourcing to a third party or purchasing insurance from another organization. Before you transfer your risk, you must evaluate what type of risk is being transferred and how much it would cost to purchase insurance or outsource. You also need to know what kind of tolerance level you have for that risk and how much money can be spent on insuring against it.

    For example, if an organization knows there will be a fire in their building, they may decide that they want to pay the extra money so they do not have any damage done while the fireplace is being repaired or rebuilt. The owner would probably want this done because he wants his customers/employees happy, but he cannot afford the financial cost of repairing all damages caused by the fire, so he decides instead just buy insurance (he will still get reimbursed after all).

    The transferring organization needs to evaluate its risk accurately; otherwise, it could be financially devastating in terms of cost and reputation.

    You know what they say: you can’t manage what you don’t measure. The transferring organization needs to have an accurate evaluation of its risk. Otherwise, it could be financially devastating in terms of cost and reputation. Risk transfer is vital in order to avoid financial and reputational damage.

    This can be done through outsourcing or insurance. However, many factors must be considered when deciding how much risk each party is willing to take on during a transaction. A clear understanding of what risks you are willing to transfer will help ensure everything goes smoothly once things start moving along smoothly.

    Before there is a risk transfer, the transferring entity should determine its level of tolerance for encountering the risk.

    Before there is a risk transfer, the transferring entity should determine its level of tolerance for encountering the risk. The tolerance level can be determined by the organization’s ability to absorb an incident or encounter’s financial impact and legal responsibility. The higher the tolerance level, the more significant risk will be transferred to a third party.

    Risk transfer is complex, and a company must do its homework before transferring any risks to another party.

    Risk transfer is complex, and a company must do its homework before transferring any risks to another party.

    The process of risk transfer involves several steps:

    Evaluating your risks and deciding which ones you want to take on.

    Determining what types of insurance can help manage these risks.

    Finding an insurance company that offers the appropriate coverage in the best possible price range for your business needs and budget.


    Risk transfer can be complex, and a company must do its homework before transferring any risks to another party. The transferring entity must have an accurate evaluation of its risk before they transfer anything. Otherwise, it could be financially devastating in terms of cost and reputation.

  • Business Impact Analysis


    A business impact analysis (BIA) is a process that identifies the critical elements of an organization’s operations and data and develops strategies to recover quickly from any disruption or disaster. A BIA helps you identify the most critical assets and activities your organization needs to protect and enables you to prioritize recovery efforts in the event of a loss. A BIA can also be used to evaluate your current level of preparedness for such events and determine where there are gaps between what you want to achieve in business continuity planning (BCP) compliance versus what you have accomplished thus far.


    Benefits of BIA:

    • Helps you identify the most critical assets and activities your organization needs to protect.
    • Helps you prioritize recovery efforts.
    • Helps you identify the resources necessary to recover from an incident.

    Business Impact Analysis Overview

    Business Impact Analysis (BIA) helps you understand what would happen if a business disruption occurred and how long it would take to recover.

    You can use BIAs with other IT planning methods, including Service Level Assessments (SLAs), Capacity Management Plans, Disaster Recovery Plans, Risk Management Plans, and Regulatory Compliance Programs.

    Business Impact Analysis Process

    The BIA process can be broken down into two phases. The first phase is the preparation, where you will gather data about your business and its critical systems. The second phase is the actual Business Impact Analysis (BIA).

    The BIA’s purpose is to identify an incident’s impact on your organization’s ability to continue business operations. In order for it to be valid, it must:

    • Demonstrate that you have researched all relevant areas
    • Represent a comprehensive view of all types of incidents (including natural disasters) that could affect your organization

    Business Impact Analysis Phase 1 – Preparation

    Understanding the business and its environment

    Understanding the organization’s goals and objectives

    Understanding the business impact of a potential incident

    Understanding the potential impact on the organization’s reputation

    Business Impact Analysis Phase 2 – Identification of Assets and Stakeholders

    The second phase of business impact analysis is all about identifying the assets, stakeholders, and dependencies.

    • Asset Identification:
    • Identify the assets critical to the business, including physical (buildings, vehicles, etc.) and intangible (e.g., intellectual property).
    • Identify who owns or has access to these assets. This can be people but also other companies, competitors, or governments.
    • Stakeholder Identification:
      • Identify who is critical for your organization operationally or strategically. These can be customers/clients/partners and suppliers as well as employees (if there is a disruption in operations, it might have negative effects on them). For example, if you have an office building, you need employees to operate from this building; otherwise, it will become empty after some time(which may lead to further losses if no steps are taken).

    Business Impact Analysis Phase 3 – Determination of Criticality and Recovery Time Objectives

    Determining criticality and recovery time objectives is crucial in the Business Impact Analysis process. How you determine these two things will depend on your organization’s unique circumstances and risk profile.

    The following questions can help you determine the criticality of your business systems:

    • Does it impact our ability to conduct basic operations?
    • Can we continue providing goods or services without this system?
    • Will we lose customers if the system isn’t operational?

    Once you have identified which systems have high-level importance, it’s time to find out how long they should be offline before they become unusable. This is where Recovery Time Objectives come into play. Recovery Time Objectives (RTO) tell us how long we can afford for our most important components to remain unavailable before they cause unacceptable damage. RTOs should be established based on data collected from past incidents, but they also need to be flexible enough to adapt as new threats emerge.

    Business Impact Analysis Phase 4 – Qualitative Risk Assessment

    After you’ve completed the three phases of your BIA, you’ll be able to determine the likelihood of each risk and how it will affect your organization. This can help you prioritize which risks to mitigate first.

    To complete this step, answer the following questions:

    • What are all the risks that could happen?
    • How likely is each risk to occur?
    • What would be the impact if this risk were realized?
    • What is the probability that this particular event will happen?

    Business Impact Analysis Phase 5 – Quantitative Risk Assessment

    In the fifth and final phase of the Business Impact Analysis, you will use quantitative risk assessment to measure the impact of a threat on your organization. Quantitative risk assessment uses mathematical modeling to predict the likelihood and severity of a disruption. It’s an important part of any Business Impact Analysis because it can help you understand how critical systems work together to support your business functions and how they may fail. This is useful information when determining your recovery strategy to prioritize what needs to be recovered first in case of disaster or interruption.

    You’ll start by identifying which threats could impact your organization’s three main functions (operations, finance and/or administration). Then for each function, multiple processes need to be assessed for their potential impact if disrupted; these are known as assets within ITIL terminology.

    Business Impact Analysis Phase 6 – Development of Response Plan Actions

    The final phase of the Business Impact Analysis is to develop the response plan actions. The goal during this phase is to identify the recovery time objectives, recovery point objectives, and contingency strategies.

    The first step in developing action items is identifying the recovery time objective (RTO) and recovery point objective (RPO). Recovery Time Objective states how long your organization will take to recover from an outage or disruption event before normal business operations can resume at pre-disruption levels. Recovery Point Objective refers to the amount of data loss that can be tolerated if a disruption occurs before you complete your backup process.

    Once you have identified your RTO and RPO, you should identify any contingency strategies needed for the response plan actions to work effectively. Contingency Strategies are plans for dealing with unplanned outages or disruptions that may occur during planned downtime activities or maintenance windows. A good example would be using a software package such as Microsoft System Center Configuration Manager (SCCM) or Microsoft Intune as part of your contingency strategy so that when there are problems installing software updates due to security updates being unavailable on Windows Update, then SCCM kicks into gear automatically downloading required files from Microsoft using either HTTPS/HTTP protocol depending on whether HTTPS access has been enabled within SCCM itself plus allowing users access via their accounts only rather than creating new ones just for each user they want who needs access while also allowing them choice over which devices they want to be installed onto based on what makes sense at any particular time versus installing everything blindly across all devices regardless which ones need updating right now because maybe some people don’t use those specific applications anymore but don’t want them uninstalled either so instead

    Business Impact Analysis Phase 7 – Implementation of Response Plans and Preparation of Contingency Strategies

    At this phase, you will

    • Identify the most critical assets and activities that your organization needs to protect.
    • Implement the response plan actions.
    • Prepare contingency strategies.
    • Establish a recovery process.

    It is important to have a clear idea of your organization’s goals for each phase of the BIA process so that you can measure progress throughout each phase.


    At the end of the day, a Business Impact Analysis aims to help you prioritize your recovery plan and prepare for an event that could cause damage to your organization. This process should be done at least annually, as well as whenever there are major changes in your business processes or technology that could impact how you respond in times of crisis.

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